On Paash- by Sukhdev Singh

pwS : ijQy kivqw ^qm nhIN huMdI

 

suKdyv isMG

 

pwS ijsny ‘Du`p bxky DrqI qy iKV jwxw Aqy gUMj bxky cONh kUtW ivc PYl jwxw’ cwihAw sI, ijsnUM izMdgI dI bhuq locw sI, A`j swfy ivc nhIN irhw[ auh izMdgI ivc kivqw vWg ivcirAw Aqy auhny kivqw nUM izMdgI dI pwhul id`qI[ izMdgI nUM ijaux-Xog bxwaux leI auhny ‘Aml’ qy ‘klm’ dohW hI p`DrW qy sMGrS kIqw[ auhdy qur jwx bwAd, izMdgI nwl auhdy gihry moh dI khwxI pwauNdIAW ieh sqrW Awp muhwry hI cyqy dy dr KVkwaux l`gIAW hn[ auhdI ZYr hwzrI ivc auhdI ‘cu`p’ bol auTI hY, auh swizS nUM bynkwb krn leI jo h`k s`c dI Awvwz nUM AzlW qoN kql krnw locdI rhI hY:

 

jdoN mYN jnimAW

qW ijaux dI sMhu Kw ky jMimAW

qy hr vwr jdoN mYN iqlk ky ifigAw

myrI mW lwhnqW pwauNdI rhI[

                        (loh kQw pMnw 16)

myrw lhU qy muVHkw im`tI ivc fu`lH igAw hY

mYN im`tI ivc d`by jwx qy vI au~g AwvWgw[

                        (loh kQw pMnw 25)

qUM ieh swrw eI kuJ Bul jwvIN myrI dosq

isvw ies qoN

ik mYnUM jIx dI bhuq locw sI

mYN gL qIkr izMdgI ivc fu`bxw cwhuMdw sW

myry vI ih`sy dw jIA lYxw myrI dosq

myry vI ih`sy dw jIA lYxw

                        (swfy simAW ivc, pMnw 9)

 

nkslvwVI lihr qoN pRBwivq pMjwbI dI juJwr-ivdrohI kivqw ivc pwS dw nW iksy rsmI jwx-pCwx dw muQwj nhIN[ pMjwbI dI romWitk-pRgqIvwdI Aqy pRXogvwdI kivqw qoN sucyq ivdroh vjoN aupjI juJwr-ivdrohI kivqw Su`D swihqk lihr nhIN sI, klw Aqy rwjnIqI dovyN iesdy mUl srokwr sn[ BgqI lihr Aqy pRgqIvwdI AMdoln dI kivqw vWg ieh kwiv-Dwrw vI iek sWsikRqk-AMdoln sI, iesdw Asr smwjk Aqy rwjnIqk sI[ Awpxy swihqk ivrsy nwl ies juJwrvwdI kiv-Dwrw dw irSqw ‘smrpx’ vwlw nhIN; sgoN  sMvwd vwlw sI[ ieiqhws pRvwh ivc AwpxI inkt smkwlI pRgqIvwdI kivqw (AMimRq-mohn isMG Dwrw) nwl AwdrS Aqy isDWq dI sWJ dy bwvjUd Awpxy ivdrohI sur kwrn juJwrvwdI kivqw AwpxI ivl`Kx pCwx sQwpq kr skI[ pwS, drSn KtkV, lwl isMG idl, AmrjIq cMdn, hrBjn hlvwrvI, gurdIp gryvwl, dyv Aqy lok nwQ Awid ies lihr dy pRmu`K kvI sn[ pwS, ijQy nkslI lihr dw srgrm kwrkun sI, auQy auh juJwr-ivdrohI kivqw dw isDWqk bulwrw vI sI[ ausdy iqMny kwv-sMgRih—loh kQw (1970 eI:) aufdy bwzW mgr (1974 eI:) Aqy swfy simAW ivc (1978 eI:), Awpxy Awpxy smyN pMjwbI kivqw ivc kw&I cricq rhy[ solW swl dI mlUkVI aumr ivc pRkwiSq loh kQw dy Awgmn nwl hI pwS pMjwbI dy sQwpq kvIAW ivc igixAw jwx l`gw[ ausdy hm-s&r pMjwbI dy pRqIb`D Swier sMq sMDU ny kivqw ivc ausdy pRvyS nUM ‘pMjwbI kivqw dw DMn Bwg’ ikhw: “kvI pwS pMjwbI kivqw dw DMn Bwg hY[ pwS dI kivqw pVHky swfIAW A`KW Ku`lHIAW hn qy swnUM mihsUs huMdw hY ik AsIN A`j q`k AOjiVAW ivc Bu`ly Btkdy rhy[ pwS dI kivqw nMgyj vWg auGwV ky dsdI hY, kvI kI ‘hsqI’ huMdw hY ? qy kivqw ikvyN ‘isrjxI bwxI’ huMdI hY”[ A`j pwS dy cly jwx bwAd khwxIkwr pRym gorKI ieh kihMdw hY—“A`j iPr swfy koloN iek hor Bgq isMG nUM Koh ilAw igAw hY pihlW auh jylH dI kwl koTVI dy hnyHry ivc KoihAw igAw A`j ic`ty idn ipMf dy itaUbvY~l auqy[ ………auh swfy pMj ipAwirAW ivcoN ‘dUjw ipAwrw qur igAw hY”[ pwS swfy auhnw pMj ipAwirAW ivcoN hY, ijnHW ny AOKI GVI ‘gurU’ nUM bydwvw nhIN id`qw, ijhVy bymu`K nhIN hoey[ auh Awpxy ‘z&rnwmy’ bdly ‘Awpxy ih`sy dI ktwr’ qoN GbrwieAw nhIN[ Awpxy pihly hI kwiv-sMgRih ivc pwS ny kvI dI nYiqk/smwjk izMmyvwrI Aqy klw dI smwjk swrQkqw dy Aihm pRSn nUM sMjIdgI nwl ivcwridAW AYlwn kIqw sI:

 

AsIN jMmxw nhIN sI

AsIN lVnw nhIN sI

AsIN qw bih ky hymkuMt qy

BgqI krnI sI

pr jd sqluj dy pwxI ivcoN Bw& auTI

pr jd kwzI nzrul ieslwm dI jIB rukI

jd kuVIAW kol ijm kwrtr q`ikAw

qy muMifAW kol q`ikAw ‘jymz bWf’

qW myN kih auiTAw cl beI sMq (sMDU)

hyTW DrqI ‘qy clIey

pwpW dw qW Bwr vDdw jWdw hY

qy AsIN hux Awey hW

Aih lau Aswfw z&rnwmw

swnUM swfy ih`sy dI ktwr dy dyvo

Aswfw pyt hwzr hY…..

                        (loh kQw, pMnw 64)

 

pwS dI kivqw kdy nw mu`kx vwlw sMvwd[ auh jy iek pwsy smkwlI smwjk msilAW bwry ivvsQw dy rwiKAW , Awpxy rwjnIqk ivroDIAW Aqy sih-krmIAW nwl sMvwd rcwauNdw hY, qW dUjy pwsy Awpxy smkwlI kwiv-Swsqr nUM drpyS msilAW pRqI vI auh G`t suj`g nhIN[ ijs smyN pwS ny ilKxw SurU kIqw aus smyN kiv dI smwjk swrQkqw dy ivSy nUM lY ky pMjwbI kwiv-icMqn ivc iq`Kw sMvwd iCiVAw hoieAw sI[ swihqk ipV AMdr pRgqIvwdI ilihr dy ivgTn kwrn pRgqIvwdI kwiv-icMqn aupr keI pwisAW qoN qrHW qrHW dy mKOty pw ky Awkrmx ho irhw sI[ pRXogvwd, Asiqqvvwd Aqy AwDuinkqw dy AwfMbr rcky kivqw jW klw nUM ins`qI krn dy Xqn ho rhy sn[ kivqw nUM hr qrHW dI nYiqk smwjk izMmyvwrI qoN mukq ‘Su`D-suhj jW Su`D-AwnMd’ dyx vwlI korI Sbd-GwVq vloN pirBwSq krn dy Xqn ho rhy sn[ iek pwsy kwiv nUM svY-sMpMn ^udmu^qwr hoNd mMnx vwlI suhjvwdI Dwrnw Aqy kwiv dy pRXojn nUM ‘AwnMd’ nwl joVn vwlI AwnMd-vwdI Dwrnw dy smrQ`k sn, jo Awpxy pwsy vloN rUpvwdI kwiv-Swsqr dI klw klw leI dI BRWqI-mUlk AnYiqk Dwrnw dy hwmI sn Aqy dUjy pwsy klw nUM prcwr leI ‘nwhry’ jW ‘hiQAwr’ vjoN vrqx dy hmwieqI AnwVI iksm dy pRgqIvwdI sn[ pwS ny AwpxI kivqw ivc ienHW dohW iksmW dy aulwrW qoN bcx dI koiSS kridAW aunHW nwl sMvwd qoirAw[ ies pRsMg ivc ausdIAW –Ku`lHI ic`TI, Sbd klw qy kivqw, ijQy kivqw ^qm nhIN huMdI Aqy ienkwr Awid kivqwvW iDAwnXog hn[ rUpvwdI kwiv-Swsqr dy smrQkW nUM roh BrI ivAMgwqmk SYlI ‘c muKwqb ieh nzmW ausdI rcnwqmk idRStI bwry koeI BulyKw nhIN rihx idMdIAW[ ieQy iDAwnXog nukqw ieh hY ik kivqwvW kvI pwS dw kwivk-mYnI&Ysto hI nhIN sgoN ausdy rwjnIqk/smwjk srokwrW nwl sMbMDq vI hn:

 

mwSUkW nUM ^q ilKx vwilE!

jy quhwfI klm dI nok bWJ hY

qW kwZzW dw grBpwq nw kro[

qwirAW vl q`k ky kRWqI ilAwaux dI

nsIhq dyx vwilE!

kRWqI jd AweI qW

quhwnUM vI qwry idKw deygI[……

…..A`j vwrs Swh dI lwS

kMifAwlI Qohr bxky

smwj dy ipMfy ‘qy au~g AweI hY-

aus nUM kho ik

ieh Xu`g vwrs dw Xu`g nhIN

vIAqnwm dw Xu`g hY

hr KyVy ivc h`kW leI sMgRwm dw Xu`g hY[

                                (loh kQw, pMnw 53-54)

jy quhwnUM bhuq mwx hY

AwpxI klw, Awpxy &ls&y ‘qy

qW KolHo suinhrI ijldW vwly gRMQ

quhwfy SYkspIAr ny

izMdgI dy hwsy ‘c mOq dy lqI&y dw

kI sQwn d`isAw hY ?

quhwfy bIQovn ny

mW-BYx dIAW gwlHW dw kI irdm d`isAw hY

mihbUb dI CwqI dy gIqW vwilAW

mW dw du`D

Aqy du`D dI lwj dw kI gIq iliKAw hY[

                                (aufdy bwzW mgr, pMnw 33)

 

“Sbd jo mwSUk dI DuMnI dw KyqrPl imxdy hn, jo rwijAW dI GwtI ‘c ncdy hn, kivqw nhIN huMdy”, kihx vwlw kvI pwS kvI dy dwieqv pRqI ikMnw sucyq hY, iesdI gvwh hY ausdI ilKI kivqw – ‘ienkwr’[ pwS burjvwzI dI suhj-sMvydnw nUM cgLy hoey svwdW dw nW idMdw hY[ pwS Anuswr hr kvI Awpxy lokW, vrg pRqI auqrdweI huMdw hY[ kivqw kdy vI inrp`K nhIN huMdI[ jmwqI ih`qW dI t`kr ivc kivqw ivcwrDwrk hiQAwr huMdI hY[ kvI jW kivqw, iDrW dI, ih`qW dI t`kr ivc morcy qoN bwhr nhIN jw skdy[ ies leI klw/kivqw dw ^wsw ieiqhwsk hI nhIN jmwqI vI huMdw hY[ ies leI kwiv vWg kwiv dw drSn Bwv kwiv-Swsqr vI jmwqI mslw hY[ AwpxI suhj-sMvydnw vWg hr vrg dw Awpxw suhj-Swsqr vI huMdw hY[ ikrqI vrg Aqy burjvwdI dy ih`qW vwg iehnW dy suhj-SwsqrW ivc vI KVy-dwA dw ivroD mMnidAW pwS burjvw suhj-Swsqr nUM kwty hyT r`Kdw hY, jdoN auh kihMdw hY:

 

myry kol suhj dI aus supn sImW qoN aury

hwlW krn nUM bhuq g`lW hn

Ajy mYN Drq qy CweI

iksy sIrI dy kwly-swh bu`lHW jhI rwq dI hI g`l krWgw[

aus ieiqhws dI

jo myry bwp dy Du`p nwl lUsy mOrW auqy au~kirAw hY….

myry qoN Aws nw kirE ik mYN KyqW dw pu`q ho ky

quhwfy cgLy hoey svwdW dI g`L krWgw[

ijnHW dy hVH ‘c ruVH jWdI hY swfy b`icAW dI qoqlI kivqw

qy swfIAW DIAW dw kMjk ijhw hwsw[

                                (swfy simAW ivc-BUimkw)

 

pwS ny AnwVI iksm dy mwrksvwdI icMqkW dI kivqw nUM pRcwr leI hiQAwr mMnx dI Dwrnw nUM vI ApRvwn kIqw, jo kwiv-isrjn ijhy rcnwqmk kwrj nUM mihz nwhrybwzI dy p`Dr q`k Gtw idMdI hY[ auh AijhI pRqIb`Dqw dw hwmI nhIN ijs Anuswr kivqw leI “hiQAwr Sbd dw nMgw ic`tw pRXog auicq smiJAw jWdw hY”[ ausdw svY-kQn hY ik “pwrtIAW dI pYNqVyxwzI nwl kivqw dI hunwVI nhIN ho skdI[ pwrtI lyblW qoN ip`Cw Cfwaux leI mYnUM bVIAW SrwrqW krnIAW peIAW hn”[ pwS dw ivSvws sI ik rwjnIqk pYNqVybwzI bwhrmuKI XQwrQ nUM smJx/smJwaux ‘c qW shweI ho skdI hY, pr kwiv-isrjn ijhy rcnwqmk kwrj ivc koeI is`DI swrQk BUimkw nhIN inBw skdI[ iesy leI auh iekbwl krdw hY ik “ilKx dy mwmly ivc quhwfI pRqIb`Dqw quhwfy AMdrly nwl hY[ nOjvwn sBwvW, swihq sBwvW Aqy ikswn sBwvW dI b^SI hoeI prqIb`Dqw bwhrmuKI jgq dIAW scweIAW nwl vwsqw r`KdI hY[ jy qusIN tryf XUnIAn dy kwirMdy ho qW quhwnUM ies pRqIb`Dqw dI &OrI kwrgrqw dI loV hY[ pr jy qusIN swihqkwr ho qW quhwnUM AMdrly sMswr nwl bwhrmuKI dy tkrwA ivcoN pYdw hoey qnwE dI loV hY bwhrmuKI scweIAW (ijQo q`k BOiqkvwd Aqy ivigAwnk &ls&y dw sMbMD hY), inrsMdyh AMqm hn[ pr swihq isrjxw dy mwmly ivc q`QW ijMnw hI h`Q klpnw dw huMdw hY[ sBw suswietIAW dI pRqIb~Dqw quhwfI klpnw nUM sUJmuKI bxwaUNdI hY[ quhwfI sUJ nUM klpnw muKI nhNIN bxw skdI”[ pwS dy ies kQn qoN spSt hY ik kivqw nwhry vWg ivcwr jW ivcwrDwrw dw vI bdl nhIN ho skdI[ kivqw ivcwrDwrw nhIN huMdI, mnu`KI ikrq dy hor rUpW vWg ivcwrDwrwk Aml dw iek AMg huMdI hY ivcwr kivqw ivc sqh qy nhIN ipAw huMdw sgoN kvI dI klpxw duAwrw isrjy pRsMg ivc ies qrHW rimAw huMdw hY[ ijvyN Sbd dI DunI ivc ArQ jW ijvyN sMswr ivc bRhm[ pwS ny ies g`l aupr zor id`qw ik BwvyN kwiv-isrjxw smwjk Aml ivc mnu`K dI smu`cI ikrq pRikRAw dw hI AMg huMdI hY, pr iesdw Awpxw ivl`Kx ivDwn huMdw hY[ ijs nUM nzr AMdwz nhIN kIqw jw skdw[ ieh Dwrnw mwrksvwdI, kwiv/suhj Swsqr ivc kwrlmwrks, eyNglz, ilaun tRwtskI Aqy plYKwnov Awid icMqkW vloN vI srv pRvwinq rhI hY[ swmwjk ivkws dI pRikRAw Aqy aus ivc kRWqIkwrI pirvrqn leI kwiv jW klw dI BUimkw dw pRSn mwrksvwd kwiv-Swsqr ivc ivcwirAw jwx vwlw Aihm mu`dw hY[ ijs Anuswr smwjk ivkws dI pRikRAw Aqy ivcwrDwrk Aml ivc kivqw dI BUimkw ‘shwiek’ vwlI huMdI hY, ‘sMcwlk vwlI nhIN[ kivqw dI BUimkw iek sIimq h`d q`k hI kRWqIkwrI huMdI hY[ kivqw smwjk ivkws ivc kRWqIkwrI pirvrqn dI loV dw Aihsws qW krvw skdI hY jW kRWqIkwrI Aml leI AinvwrI cyqnw nUM pRcMf qW kr skdI hY pr kRWqIkwrI pirvrqn leI ieko iek inrxwiek q`q nhIN huMdI[ mwrkvwdI suhj-Swsqr dI ies mh`qvpUrx Dwrnw nUM pwS ny AwpxI kivqw-‘ijQy kivqw ^qm nhIN huMdI’ ivc spSt kIqw hY jdoN auh Awpxy ipMf dy muMifAW nUM kihMdw hY ik “msilAW dy hl leI kivqw au`kw hI nwkw&I huMdI hY”[ myry ivcwr Anuswr swihqk Kyqr ivc pwS dw mh`qv do g`lW krky hY, iek qW ieh ik rcnwqmk Kyqr ivc aus ny BgqI lihr Aqy pRgqIvwdI Dwrw dI kivqw dy bZwvqI sur nUM juJwr-ivdrohI kivqw rUp ivc surjIq r`iKAw Aqy dUjw ieh ik kwiv-isrjxw dy nwl nwl ausny kwiv-SwsqrI pRSnW pRqI gMBIr sMvwd dIAW sMBwvnwvW nUM m`Tw nhIN pYx id`qw[

 

kvI pwS ny smkwlI kwiv-icMqn nUM drpyS msilAW dy nwl nwl smkwlI rwjnIqI ivc iCVy ivvwd nwl vI gMBIr sMvwd rcwieAw[ fw: Aqr isMG Anuswr “pwS dI vifAweI ies g`l ivc hY ik aus ny rwjnIqI qy klw dohW KyqrW ivc ies sMbwd dI sMBwvnw nUM aujwgr kIqw[ ‘swfy simAW ivc’ dIAW iviBMn kivqwvW ausdy ienHW dohW srokwrW dI swKI BrdIAW hn[ AWpxI rcnw dI smwjk swrQkqw leI auh Enw hI sj`g hY, ijqnw auh iesdI mOilk Aqy ivAkqIgq ivSySqw bwry[ iblkl iesdy smwnWqr Awpxy icMqn ivc mwnvqw dIAW mMgW bwry auh auqnw hI jwgrUk hY ijqnw auh ivAkqI dy AiDkwrW bwry”[ ivAkqI dy mwnvI AiDkwrW dI  bhwlI leI auh s`qw dy rwiKAW, Awpxy rwjniqk ivroDIAW Aqy Awpxy hI s&r dy swQIAW nwl sMvwd rcwauNdw hoieAw ikrq nwl AwpxI pRqIb`Dqw nUM spSt krdw hY[ ij`Qy s`qwDwrI vrg Awpxy Ax-mnu`KI lotU ikrdwr krky ausdy roh dw iSkwr bixAw, auQy K`by lihr dIAW dohyN muK isAwsI pwrtIAW AwpxI ‘soDvwdI isAwsI pYNqVybwzI’ kwrn ausdy ivAMg dw ivSw bxIAW[ AMqr rwStrI p`Dr ‘qy kimaUinst lihr nwl AwdrS Aqy isDWq dI sWJ dy bwvjUd pwS AwpxIAW kivqwvW dy nW-kwZzI SyrW, myrI mW dIAW A`KW, ArQW dw Apmwn, vkq dI lwS, droxwcwrIAw dy nW, prK nlI, swfy simAW ivc Aqy kwmryf nwl g`lbwq-ivc K`by p`KI lihr dIAW isDWqk Aqy dwA-pyck kmzorIAW dw qnzIAw AMdwz ivc mKOl aufwauNdw hY[ audwhrx vjoN:-

 

qusIN au~qr ho nw d`Kx

qIr nw qlvwr

qy ieh jo is`lH vwlI k`cI kMD hY

qusIN ies ivclIAW do morIAW ho

ijnHW ivcoN kMD dw ipClw SYqwn

Awpxw fI&YNs qkdw hY……

qusI kxk dy v`F ivc

ikry hoey Coly ho

qy im`tI ny quhwfw vI ihswb krnw hY[

                                (loh kQw, pMnw 55)

ieh Srmnwk hwdsw swfy hI nwl hoxw sI

ik dunIAW dy sB qoN piv`qr hr&W ny

bx jwxw sI isMGwsx dy pOfy-

mwrks dw Syr vrgw isr

id`lI dIAW Bul-BulweIAW ivc imAWkdw iPrdw

AsIN hI q`kxw sI

myry Xwro ieh ku&r swfy hI simAW ‘c hoxw sI[

                                (swfy simAW ivc, pMnw 67)

 

hiQAwr bMd KwVkU sMGrS dI QW pwrlImYNt phuMc ivc ivSvws, s`qwDwrI pwrtI nwl s`qw ivc iBAwlI Aqy rwjnIqk gTjoV kwrn auh kwmryfW nUM ‘kwZzI Syr’, ‘isMGwsx dy pOfy’, ‘ik`kr dy bIA’ Aqy ‘gLy sVy Pu`lW’ Awid ivSySxW nwl iqRskwr dy BwgI bxwauNdw hY[ K`bI lihr pRqI pwS dI quhmq bwzI nkslvwdI lihr dI aus b`cgwnw jzbwqI phuMc dw is`tw hY jo AMqr rwStrI p`Dr qy AmrIkn swmrwj Aqy sovIAq rUs dy ikrdwr nUM , Aqy rwStrI p`Dr qy s`qwDwrI kWgrs qy kimaUinst pwrtIAW dy ikrdwr nUM, ieko ijhw smJdI sI[ pwS dI kivqw ivc dyS, sMivDwn, ivvsQw-inAW pwlkw qy pRbMDkI FWcw Awid ivc AivSvws bhuq hI Bwvuk Aqy snsnI^yz muhwvry ivc rUpmwn hoieAw hY[ sMivDwn aus leI ‘mr cu`kI pusqk hY’, ijsdy l&zW ivc mOq dI TMf hY (sMivDwn) dyS aus leI ‘koeI Gr vrgI piv`qr SYA jw j`&I vrgy iksy Aihsws  dw nW nhIN hY’, sgoN ‘rUh dI vgwr dw kwrKwnw jW au~lU bxwaux dw pRXogGr hY (AwpxI Asur`iKAqw ‘coN) ieh dyS Ajy Awm lokW dw nhIN ‘kyvl kuJ AwdmIAW dw hY’ qy ieQoN dw ‘kwnUMn is`ky dw hY jo kyvl A`g nwl FL skdw hY’ (kwql) iqrMgw ‘iqMn Q`ky hoey rMgw dw nW hY’ Aqy ‘ASok c`kr ivc AOrMgzyb dI SYqwn rUh pRvyS kr geI hY’[ JMfy dI Skl ‘ivvsQw dy h`QW ivcly toky vrgI hY, jo mnu`KI ih`k AMdrlI cIk nUM CWgdI’ jW izbwh krdI hY (ijQy kivqw ^qm nhIN huMdI) ieQy bMidAW dI Skl ‘cmcy’ vrgI hY (do qy do iqMn) dyS dI pRDwn mMqrI lokW dI jweI nhIN sgoN bdySI swmrwj dI eyjMt hY[ lMkw dy ienklwbIAW nUM muKwqb kivqw ivc auh kihMdw hY:-

 

ieh ieMdrw ijs ny qYnUM mOq dw pYZwm G`ilAw hY,

sivtzrlYNf ivc jnmI hoeI lMfn dI bytI hY,

iehdI swVHI ‘c fwlr hY, iehdI AMgI ‘c rUbl hY

iehnUM myry dyS dI kihxw, myrI DrqI dI hyTI hY[

                                        (aufdy bwzW mngr, pMnw 37)

 

pwS dy ieh snsnI^yz ivdrohI kQn drAsl BwrqI s`qw (state) bwry nkslI lihr dy aus ivigAwnk ivSlySx dw hI kwivk pRgtwvw hY, ijs Anuswr BwrqI s`qw jW s`qwDwrI vrg bdySI swmrwj dw eyjMt hY Aqy ies ADIn pUMjIvwd ivkws dIAW hor sMBwvnwvW iblkul ^qm ho cu`kIAW hn[ ieiqhwsk qOr qy mrn iknwry phuMcI ies ivvsQw ivc srmweydwrI Aqy ikrqI vrg dw jmwqI tkrwau &Yslwkun siQqI ivc phuMicAw hoieAw hY, ies leI hux rwjsI s`qw dI pRwpqI jW kRwqIkwrI pirvrqn leI ieko iek rwh hiQAwr bMd KwVkU Gol dw hI hY[ BwrqI s`qw (state) dy jmwqI cir`qr  Aqy ieiqhwsk siQqI bwry nkslI lihr dw ieh ivSlySx iek ieiqhwsk Bu`l sI[ ieh ivSlySx ijQy bdySI Aqy dysI srmweydwrI dy AwpsI qnwau Aqy dysI srmweydwrI dI BUimkw Aqy sImw nUM nzr AMdwz krdw hY auQy ieiqhwsk siQqIAW nUM inklwb leI AnukUl mMnx dw BulyKw vI pwldw sI[ Swied eysy BulyKy kwrn smu`cI nkslvwdI kivqw pRiqinD XQwrQ nUM icqrx dI bjwey kRWqIkwrI/KwVkU mnu`K dy rumWitk ibMb nUM auswrn dy Xqn ivc rhI[ AjyhI AvsQw ivc auqyjnw BrpUr ieMdirAwvI ibMbwvlI Aqy snsnI^yz BwSweI muhwvry dI vrqoN bhuq suBwivk sI, ijs dy drSn ies lihr dI kivqw ivc Aksr huMdy hn[

 

ivdroh, ihMsw Aqy sMGrS nkslvwdI lihr qoN pRBwivq juJwr-ivdrohI kivqw dy Awvrqk-q`q (Recurring pattern) hn[ rwjnIqk ipV AMdr ies lihr ny ivAwpk jn-sMGrS dI QW gurIlw X`uD Aqy ivAkqIgq sUrmgqI qy AwDwirq mwhrkybwzI nUM isAwsI dwA pycW vjoN pRvwn kIqw[ juJwrvwdI kivqw ivc AmrjIq cMdn, lwl isMG idl, drSn KtkV, gurdIp gryvwl, hlvwrvI Aqy pwS Awid dI kivqw ivc ies dIAW pRiqDunIAW suxIAW jw skdIAW hn[ pwS ny vI aufdy bwzW mgr Aqy loh kQw dIAW keI kivqwvW ivc ihMsw qy KwVkU sMGrS dI vkwlq kIqI hY[ihMsw Aqy KwVkU sMGrS nUM ieiqhwsk siQqI dI Ainvwrqw vjoN pyS kridAW pwS ny lohw, SrDWjlI, kwql, ieMj hI shI, h`Q, qU&wnW ny kdy vI mwq nhIN KwDI Aqy Xu`D qy SWqI Awid kivqwvW ivc roh Bry ivdrohI lihjy ‘c iliKAw-

 

lohw:        lohy ny bVw icr ieMqzwr kIqw hY

        ik lohy qy inrBr lok

        lohy dIAW p`qIAW Kw ky

        ^udkSI krnoN ht jwx

        mSInW ivc Aw ky qUMbw qUMbw au`fx vwly

        lwvwrsW dIAW qIvIAW

        lohy dIAW kursIAW qy bYTy vwrsW kol

        kpVy qk vI Awp lwhux leI mjbUr nw hox[

pr Aw^r lohy nUM

psqOlW, bMdUkW qy bMbW dI

Skl AKiqAwr krnI peI hY[             (loh kQ, pMnw 8)

SrDWjlI:

        bwbw qUM qW jwxI jwx eyN

        AsIN qYQoN kdy nwbr nhIN

        AsIN Bwgo dy Boj nUM Tukrw id`qw hY

        AsIN qlvMfI dw moh C`f ky

        Ju`gIAW, CprW qy jMglW ivc inkl Awey hW

isr& iek AxhoxI krn l`gy hW

ieh s`jxW, BUmIAW dI &Oj

h`QW ivc AYqkIN mSIn gMnW lY ky inkl AweI hY

AsIN lohy dy pwxI dI brKw krn l`gy hW[            (loh kQw)

h`Q:

        h`Q jy hox qW

        joVn leI nhIN huMdy

        nw duSmx swhmxy cu`kx nUM hI huMdy hn

        ieh ig`cIAW mroVn leI vI huMdy hn

        h`Q jy hox qW

        hIr dy h`QoN cUrI PVn leI hI nhIN huMdy

        sYdy dI jnyq f`kx leI vI huMdy hn

        h`Q ikrq krn leI hI nhIN huMdy

        lotU h`QW nUM qoVn leI vI huMdy hn……

        jo h`QW dw Drm BMg krdy hn

        jo h`QW dy suhj dw Apmwn krdy hn

        auh ipMgly huMdy hn[

                                        (aufdy bwzW mgr, pMnw 24)

 

ikrq dI rwKI jW ‘h`QW dy suhj dy snmwn leI’ ihMsw qy KwVkU Gol nUM AMiqm vsIly vjoN pRvwn krn dI nkslvwdI kivqw dI ieh Dwrnw, drAsl mwau zy quMg dy ies ivcwr qoN pRyirq hY ik s`qw/qwkq bMdUk dI nwlI ‘coN inkldI hY[ rwjnIqk Kyqr ivc nkslbwVI lihr dI mUl Bu`l  ieh sI ik ies ny kRWqIkwrI pirvrqn leI pRcMf jmwqI sUJ qy AwDwirq ivAwpk jn-sMGrS nUM lwmbMd krn dI QW ihMswqmk ivdroh Aqy ivAkqIgq mwhrkybwzI aupr zor id`qw[ ijs dy nqIjy vjoN ieh lihr ivSwl jn-smUh ivc Awpxw ivAwpk AwDwr nhIN bxw skI Aqy sImq ijhy bu`DIjIvI vrg nUM hI AwkRiSq kr skI[ ijs qrHW ies lihr ny ihMsw Aqy ivAkqIgq mwhrkybwzI rwhIN rwjnIqk hlikAW ivc snsnI pYdw kIqI, ausy qrHW ies lihr qoN pRBwivq kivqw ny roh BrI nwhrybwzI Aqy ieMdirAwvI ibMbwvlI rwhIN swihqk hlikAW ivc snsnI pYdw kIqI[ ieiqhws-ivmuK rumWitk idRStI kwrn ies lihr dI kivqw dw mUl srokwr XQwrQ dy pRiqinD icqrx dI bjwey qyj`svI mnu`K dy rumWitk ibMb nUM auGwVn dw hI irhw[ juJrvwdI kivqw dy vfyry Bwg ivc ihMsw Aqy ivAkqIgq mwhrkybwzI nUM mnu`KI rveIe vjoN hI pyS kIqw igAw hY[ iesnUM mnu`KI ikrq vjoN pyS krky iesdI swrQkqw nUM auGwVn dy Xqn ivrly hI hoey hn[ ies rucI kwrn gurdIp gryvwl Aqy drSn KtkV vrgy smr`Qwvwn kvIAW dI kivqw vI keI QweIN roh BrI nwhrbwzI bxky rih geI[ pwS dI pihly dOr dI kivqw vI ies rucI dw iSkwr hoeI[ pr pwS dI vifAweI ies g`l ivc hY ik auh ihMsw Aqy sMGrS nUM smwjk AinAW dy ^wqmy leI Aqy brwbrI, suqMqrqw qy mwnvIgOrv dI bhwlI vwly smwjvwdI smwj dI auswrI vwsqy vrqx dw sMklkp krdw hY[ ihMsw ijhw nkwrwqmk sMklp, auswrU AwdrS nwl juVky pwS dI kivqw ivc nYiqk isDWq ho inbiVAw hY[ pyS hY ausdI kivqw-AsIN lVWgy swQI dIAW kuJ sqrW:-

 

AsIN lVWgy qd qk

ik vIrU b`krIAW vwlw jdoN qk

b`krIAW dw mUq pINdw hY

iKVy hoey srHoN dy Pu`lW nUM

jd qk vwhux vwly Awp nhIN suMGdy

ik su`jIAW A`KIAW vwlI

ipMf dI AiDAwpkw dw pqI

jMg qoN prq nhIN AwauNdw…..

AsIN lVWgy jd qk

dunIAW ‘c lVn dI loV bwkI hY….

AsIN lVWgy

ik lVn bwJoN kuJ nhIN imldw[

                                (aufdy bwzW mgr, pMnw 26, 27)

 

‘ihMsw’ Aqy ‘sMGrS’ pwS dI kivqw ivc iksy AnYiqk nwhry dw rUp nhIN Dwrdy[ auh ‘ihMsw’ Aqy ‘sMGrS’ nUM mnu`K dI ikrq vjoN hI pRvwn krdw hY[ auhdy leI h`Q jy ikrq krn dw ‘swDn’ hn qW auh ikrq dI lu`t nUM rokx leI ‘hiQAwr’ vI hn[ h`QW dw Drm, ikrq dy swDn bxky izMdgI dy suhj nUM isrjxw hI nhIN, sgoN hiQAwr dw rUp Dwrky izMdgI Aqy suhj dI rwKI krnw vI hY[ pwS dI kivqw ivc h`Q Aqy hiQAwr Aqy ikrq Aqy sMGrS nUM iek dUjy qoN inKyiVAw nhIN jw skdw[ AwpxI kivqw ‘Xu`D Aqy SWqI’ ivc pwS Xu`D nUM mnu`K dy mnu`K hox dI pihlI Srq vjoN pRIBwiSq krdw hY[ aus Anuswr SWqI, mnu`K dI ikrq nUM lu`tx dw, ausdy Asiqqv nUM T`gx dw mkr hY, ijs dw ArQ Xu`D nUM zlIlqw dI p`Dr qy lVnw hY[ Xu`D (ivSwl ArQW ivc ikrq) qoN munkr hox nUM auh izMdgI qoN munkr hoxw mMndw hY[ pwS leI ikrq dy gOrv dI bhwlI leI Xu`D dI q`qprqw ‘izMdgI dy swaU pu`q’ hox dw sbUq hY, ikauNik :

 

Xu`D ieSk dI isKr dw nW hY

Xu`D lhU dy lwf dw nW hY

Xu`D jIx dy in`G dw nW hY…..

Xu`D Amn dy SurU dw nW hY

Xu`D ivc rotI dy husn nUM

inhwrn ijhI sUKmqw hY…..

Xu`D swfy b`icAW leI

ipVIAW vwlI Ku`do lY ky Aweygw

Xu`D swfIAW BYxW leI

kFweI dy suMdr nmUny ilAweygw

Xu`D swfIAW bIvIAW dy QxW AMdr

du`D bxky auqrygw

Xu`D swifAW v`ifAW dI kbr auqy

Pu`l bxky iKVygw[

                                (swfy simAW ivc, pMnw 29, 30)

 

ies kivqw ivc pwS Xu`D Aqy SWqI dI ivAwiKAw dy ivroDI sMklpW vjoN nhIN, sgoN do ivroDI vrgW dy jmwqI &ls&y vjoN krdw hY[ SWqI auh ivcwrDwrk hiQAwr hY ijs rwhIN srmweydwrI, ikrq dI lu`t nUM brkrwr r`Kx dw mkr krdI hY[ sMGrS ikrqI vrg dI ikrq, ivSwl ArQW ivc auhnW dy Asiqqv dI rwKI dw ieko iek swDn hY, ijsnUM pUMjIpqI vrg ihMswqmk pwSvI rveIAw kih ky inMddw hY[ ijs qrHW brujvwzI ikrqI vrg dy sMGrS (jW Xu`D) dy &ls&y nUM nkwrqwmk ihMsk pRivrqI kihky BMfdI hY ausy qrHW burjvw suhj Swsqr/kwiv-Swsqr kwiv jW klw dy ivdrohI sur nUM ‘nwhry’ jW ‘pRcwr’ dw nW dy ky aus nUM klw mMnx qoN hI ienkwrI huMdw hY[ pwS Anuswr ikrq dy hor rUpW vWg mnu`KI ikrq dw iek AMg hox kwrn kwiv-isrjxw leI vI Xu`D dI Ainvwrqw qoN munkr nhIN hoieAw jw skdw[ ihMsw Aqy ivdrohI sur nUM lok-p`KI klw dw rcnwqmk-isDWq bxnw peygw[

 

myrI dosq kivqw bhuq hI ins`qI ho geI hY

jdoN ik hiQAwrW dy nONh burI qrHW vD Awey hn

qy hux hr qrHW dI kivqw qoN pihlW

hiQAwrW nwl Xu`D krnw zrUrI ho igAw hY[

                                (swfy simAW ivc, pMnw 6)

 

pwS dI kivqw dw s&r  ausdy icMqn dy gqISIl suBwA dw pRmwx hY[ smwjk pRsiQqIAW ivc bdlwv dy nwl nwl ausdI kivqw dI sMboDnI-SYlI Aqy rUp ivDI ivc hI qbdIlI nhIN AweI, sgoN ausdI kwiv-sMvydnw ivc vI iek is&qI qbdIlI idRStIgocr huMdI hY[ nkslI lihr dy auBwr smyN pwS ny ies Xu`g nUM ‘vIAqnwm dw Xu`g’ jW KyVy ‘c h`kW dy sMgrwm dw Xu`g ikhw sI[ ihMsw Aqy KwVkU sMGrS dI vkwlq kridAW ies lihr vWg pwS ny vI mnu`K nUM iek qyj`svI juJwr XoDy dy rUp ivc pyS kIqw[ hoxIAW nwl Guldy juJwr nwiek dw ieh rumWitk ibMb BwvyN aus dy dOr dy vsqU-XQwrQ dw pRiqinD s`c nhIN sI, pr ies ny pMjwbI kivqw qy kwiv-icMqn nUM iek nvIN idSw zrUr id`qI[ BwvyN ieh swihqk lihr AwpxI rumWitk-idRStI kwrn Awpxy smyN dy s`c dw pRiqinD icqr nhIN aulIk skI, pr ijs qyj`svI nwiek Aqy au~cI sur vwly kwivk muhwvry dw isrjx ies lihr dy kvIAW ny kIqw auh ArQW qoN KwlI nhIN[ jdoN ieh lihr rwnIqk ipV AMdr AwpxIAW AMdrUnI ivroDqweIAW Aqy AivigAwnk phuMc kwrn KyrUM KyrUM hoeI qW iesdy smrQkW ivc inrwSw qy bvsI dy svr dw BwrI hoxw suBwivk sI[ ‘swfy simAW ivc’ kwiv-sMgRih dIAW kivqwvW ivc pwS ny ies s`c nUM pkVn dw Xqn kIqw[ hux ausny ies Xu`g nUM ‘Srmnwk hwdisAW’ dw Xu`g ikhw, smW aus nUM hMBI hoeI jog vWg KV igAw l`igAw[ ausnU jwipAw ik smW koeI lhU mMgdI sUeI hY jo swfIAW ByxW dy lMgwr sIx dI QW poitAW ivc cuBdI hY[ auhny mihsUs kIqw ik ‘smW hux GVIAW nwl nhIN h`fW dy Kurn nwl imixAw jWdw hY’[ hux eyQy ‘sUrj vrgw kuJ nhIN’[ ausnU Aihsws hoieAw ik sMpUrn gqIroD dI AvsQw ivc ‘ikDry vI kuJ nw hoxw’ Aqy ‘cIzW dw cup cwp lyty rihxw iksy TMfI AOrq vWg’ ikMnw iBAwnk huMdw hY[ inrwSw iek`lqw Aqy byvsI dw ieh Aihsws pwS dI kivqw ivc iek nvyN svr dy auBrn dw boD krvwauNdw hY[ ieh nvW svr ivAkqI nUM iksy qyj`svI/juJwr nwiek vWg nhIN sgoN byv`s, srwpI hoNd vWg pRvwn krdw hY[ ‘DrqI qy vDdy jWdy pwpW dy Bwr’ pRqI DOl-Drm inBwaux vwlw kvI pwS Awpxy Awp nUM –‘mYN ipMfy vkq dy c`pw sdI dw dwZ hW kyvl’ kihx l`gw[ sMkt mUMh Awey BweIcwry ivc ausnUM nwiek dI dSw kuJ ies qrHW lgdI hY:

 

mYN muMifE, hux quhwfy ‘coN nhIN hW

mYN ie`l dy pMijAW ‘c auf irhw Awzwd cUhw hW

Gusmusy dI cuMBlI hoeI A`K hW

ieiqhws dy qwlw lgy hoey bUhy qy bYTw pRwhuxw hW…..

kivqw nhIN, myrI Awvwz kyvl gMd qy vrHdw mINh hY

quhwfy leI AsIs nw nsIhq

myry Sbd DulweI krdy hoey vI bdbU iKMfw rhy hn…                                                                                   (swfy simAW ivc, pMnw 3, 4)

 

sMkt mUMh Awey BweIcwry ivc smUihk krm qoN t`ut qy mnuu`K nwiek nhIN rihMdw Aqy kvI, pYZMbr[ AwpxI ikrq/isrjxw nwloN tu`itAw mnu`K Awpxw mwnvI-gOrv (Human Essence) hI nhIN, Awpxw BweIcwrk gOrv (Social Essence) vI guAw lYNdw hY[ ausdI hsqI ‘ie`l dy pMijAW ‘c Awzwd cUhy’ vrgI huMdI hY[ auh ieiqhws dw isrjk nhIN rihMdw, sgoN krqwrI sMBwvnwvW hMFw cu`kI izMdgI dw mUk drSk huMdw hY[ auh izMdgI dy AnMq s`c nUM pRkwSmwn krn vwlw iSv dw qIsrw nyqr nhIN, sgoN nyrHy dI cuMBlI hoeI A`K huMdw hY[ ies pYZMbrI krm qoN bWJ hoey kvI dI isrjxw ‘kivqw nhIN, kyvl Awvwz huMdI hY, jo gMd qy vrHdy mINh vWg s&weI krdI hoeI bdbU iKMfwauNdI hY[ pwS dIAW ieh sqrW pRis`D swihq-icMqk lUsIeyN golfmYn dI Xwd duAwauNdIAW hn ijs dI Dwrnw hY ik mMfI dy ArQcwry vwly sMktgRsq smwj ivc klwkwr iek sm`isAwgq ivAkqI huMdw hY, jo smwj pRqI ivroD BwvI huMdw hoieAw Awlocnwqmk vqIrw r`Kdw hY[ qyj`svI/juJwrU nwiek dI mwhrkybwzI dI QW smkwlI smwjk siQqI ivc mnu`K dI byvsI dw ieh stIk pwS dI kivqw ivc romWs dI QW Awlocnwqmk XQwrQvwdI rcnw-idRStI dw pRvyS dw sUck hY[ hwlwq dy in`sl kIqy mnu`K dI byvsI Aqy audryvyN dy XQwrQk icqrW dy drSn krn leI pwS dIAW pMjwbI lok-gIqW nUM AwDwr bxw ky ilKIAW kivqwvW-CMnI, icVIAW dw cMbw, AwSk dI AihMsw Aqy klwm imrzw dw AiDAYn bhuq roick rhygw[ iehnW kivqwvW dI ^UbsUrqI ieh hY ik swnUM romWs dI supn AvsQw ‘coN k`F ky XQwrQ dy aus krUr Drwql dy rUbrU krdIAW hn, jo Asih huMdw hoieAw vI swfy smyN dw s`c hY[ audwhrx vjoN:

 

CMnI:

        CMnI qW CNMnI hoeI

        pr gu`fIey qyry gIqW nwl

        qyry vIry nUM bMnI nhIN l`BxI

ausnUM qW mwr jwvygw

        bwbl dI G`t zmIn dw pCqwvw

        qy ausdI cklydwr ih`k qy

        Pulky vyldI rhygI

        sdw hI ivgVy rihMdy ieMjx dI qkwvI……

        qy iPrnI qoN hI muVn lgxgy

aus nUM dyKx vwly[           (swfy simAW ivc, pMnw 16, 17)

 

icVIAW dw cMbw:

        icVIAW dw cMbw auf ky ikqy nhIN jwvygw[

        AyQy hI ikqy aury pry bMinAW qy Gwh Koqygw

qy ru`KIAW im`sIAW rotIAW FoieAw krygw[

        icVIAW dw cMbw mu&q hI pRySwn huMNdw hY

        bwbl qW foly nUM qorky

au`KVy bUhy nUM ie`tW lvweygw

qy g`ufIAW pwV ky

psIny nwl gLy hoey kuVqy auqy twkI sMvweygw[

jdoN auh Awp hI gloitAW ijauN k`iqAw jwvygw

icVIAW dy cMby nUM moh crKy dw aukw nhIN sqweygw[

                                        (swfy simAW ivc, pMnw 19, 20)

 

klwm imrzw:

pr Swied hux

swrw kuJ pihly ijhw nw hovy

ho skdY ik qYnUM k`Fx qoN pihlW

mYnUM rotI auDwl ley

qy jW mYN jMf dI bjwey iksy kursI dy Q`ly

jwgdw hI v`F id`qw jwvW…..

smyN dw gyV huMdY-AYqkIN qUM byv&w nhIN bxdI

qy mYN BrwvW dy huMdy suMdy

aunHW dy swhmxy hI mwirAw jwxw hY

eysy leI mYN kihMdw hW

ik Swied swrw kuJ pihly ijhw nw hovy[

 

pwS dI kivqw ivc mnu`K dI byvsI dw ieh nvW svr iek nvIN pRgtw ivDI nUM nwl lY ky AwieAw[ au~cI sur Aqy roh Bry ivdrohI muhwvry dI QW pwS ny smkwlI mnu`K dI siQqI nUM sUKm ivAMgwqmk CohW rwhIN rUpmwn krnw SurU kIqw[ ausdI sMboDn-SYlI ivclI ieh qbdIlI ieiqhwsk/smwjk siQqI ivclI is&qI qbdIlI dw hI prqO hY[ pwS ny ^ud ies q`Q nUM svIkwr kIqw hY-“rwjnIqk srgrmIAW ‘coN h`Q iK`c lYx nwl kudrqI hI sI ik myrI kivqw ivc AMqr-muKqw vD jWdI”[ ‘swfy simAW ivc’ sMgRih dIAW kivqwvW ivc pwS ny sMvwd dI QW Awqm-lwp Aqy roh-Bry snsnI^yz muhwvry dI QW sMdySmeI sMboDn ivDI dI vrqoN bhuq hI klwqmk AMdwz ivc kIqI[ ijQy AwpxIAW pihlIAW do pusqkW ivc ieh dUijAW nwl sMvwd rcwauNdw hY, auQy Aw^rI kwiv-sMgRih ivc auh Awpxy Awp nwl, Awpxy bIqy nwl sMvwd qorn dI mudrw ‘c hY[ ieQy ausdI siQqI Awqm-icMqn Aqy ivDI Awqm-lwp dI hY, ijs ivc roh jW klyS dI kuV`qx AMS mwqr vI nhIN[ Awpxy bIqy nUM Xwd krn jW ilKy nUM pVHn smyN mnu`K Aksr Bwvuk ho jWdw hY, pr pwS ies iksm dy Awqm-moh qoN AsloN mukq hY[ AwpxI swihqk-prMprw vWg AwpxI ilKq nwl vI ausdw irSqw sMvwd-DrmI hY[ Awpxy hI ilKy nUM mytx jW AwpxI hI ilKq nUM muV ilKx dI jigAwsw ‘coN aupjI hY ausdI Aw^rI pusqk[ Awpxy hI h`QoN isrjI AwpxI hI im`Q dw sMGwr-iesdy nmUny pMjwbI kivqw ivc ivrly hI imldy hn[ kdy ihMdI dy iek inSTwvwn kvI DUiml ny ikhw sI ik-“kivqw BwSw myN AwdmI hony kI qmIz hY”[ pwS dI kivqw nUM pVHidAW ies kQn dy ArQ smJ Awaux lgdy hn[ swnUM izMdgI ijuaux dw slIkw d`sx vwlw pwS Awp qW ‘hiVAweI srsw ivcoN tu`BI mwrky gurU dy grMQ k`Fx clw igAw hY’, ipCy rih geI auhdI kivqw kihMdI hY ik izMdgI nUM jIx dw ieh vI iek slIkw huMdw hY:

DrqI qy Dup vWg iKV jwxw

qy iPr glv`kVI ivc ismt jwxw

bwrUd vWg BVk au~Txw

cONh kUtW AMdr gUMj jwxw…

jIx dw ieho hI slIkw huMdw hY[

                        (swfy simAW ivc, pMnw 8)

 

hvwly

 

  1. sMq sMDU, loh kQw (BUimkw ivcoN) pMnw 3
  2. pRym gorKI, ‘iek lwt jo buJ geI’ isrnwvW, ApRYl 1988, pMnw 36
  3. pwS, swfy simAW ivc, (BUimkw ivcoN) pMnw rihq
  4. pwS, “pRqIb`Dqw bwry myrI rwie” AwrsI, nvMbr 1977, pMnw 34
  5. fw: Aqr isMG, swihq sMvydnw ‘pwS hox dw sMqwp’, pMnw 196
  6. Lucien Goldmann, Towards a Sociology of the Novel, p. 15
  7. pwS, ‘swfy simAW ivc’ BUimkw ivcoN, pMnw rihq
  8. DUiml, sMsd sy sVk qk (kwiv sMgRih)
  9. isrjxw-71
  10. AwrsI, nvMbr 1977, pRiqb`Dqw bwry myrI rwie-pwS

 

(‘ijQy kivqw ^qm nhIN huMdI’ ivcoN)

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